Glossop Heritage Trust

The Hamlet of Whitfield.


This page is based on the notes of Robert Hamnett, originally published as an article in the Glossop Advertiser in 1913.

The name "Whitfield" in Anglo-Saxon times meant a bright or white pasture or field, and up to the latter part of the 18th century the hamlet was devoted mostly to agriculture. Its area is 2,608 statute acres.
Its progress is shown by the census returns. Prior to 1821 the census of the various hamlets in the parish of Glossop were not taken separately. I have not got the census for 1881.
Year Houses Inhabitants
1821 169 984
1831 274 1734
1841 538 3044
1851 821 4774
1861 1170 5679
1871 1229 5615
1891 1777 7547
The census is now taken by Wards and Ecclesiastical Districts. In 1891, the Ecclesiastical District of Saint James' (Whitfield) contained 2100 houses and 9031 inhabitants. In 1911, 2211 houses and 9034 inhabitants. St. James' became an Ecclesiastical Parish in 1844.

Whitfield's Area and Early Owners.
In 1066 William I (The Conqueror) became King of England, and divided most of the land amongst those who had assisted him in the conquest. To his natural son, William Pevril, he gave the High Peak.

Matilda de Whitfield and Thomas le Ragged were Foresters of the High Peak Forest, and for services rendered, William gave them Whitfield, it never became Crown property, but has been in the possession of private owners ever since. What portion belongs to the Lord of the Manor of Glossop has been acquired by purchase.

The descendants of Thomas le Ragged sold their portion in 1330 to John Foljambe. The Foljambes are a very ancient Derbyshire family, and settled in the County soon after the Conquest. Many of them are buried in the Foljambe Chapel of the Parish Church of Chesterfield; others lie in the Chancel of Tideswell Church, where the above John Foljambe was buried in 1358. The monumental brass over his grave was restored in 1875.

The Foljambe Whitfield Estate was eventually sold to the Bagshawe's, of Ridge Hall, near Chapel en le Frith. The Bagshawes were living at Ridge Hall in 1141, so they are also an ancient Derbyshire family. In 1439, the Rev. George Bagshawe was appointed to the living at Glossop, and was the vicar for 18 years. In 1606 Thomas Bagshawe sold his Whitfield Estate to the local gentry. Amongst the purchasers was George Garlick, of Dinting, the Great and Little Mylne Moor; they still have some portion of it in Gladstone Street. Thomas Barber paid for land 42 6s., and sold it in 1617 to William Wagstaffe for 150 0s 8d. It comprised the Flatt Farm, which will be offered for sale on Monday next. William Wagstaffe, mercer, purchased the "Over Bore", occupied by John Hadfield and "The Lower Bore" was occupied by Thomas Barber. The Wagstaffes still have land bounded by Victoria Street, Derby Street and King Street. Robert Bromhall purchased "The Lower Burghes or Burres". William Bore got a messuage and closes of land at Crosscliffe, and William Padfield messuages and closes of land now called Padfield Gate.

The Jumble Estate, called in old deeds "Jumbo Land", was sold to Nicholas Charlesworth. Other property was sold to Nicholas Boothe, Robert Robinson, William Dewsnap, John Hynchliffe, George Wood, John Hadfield, Nicholas Hadfield. One of these Hadfields must have been one of the Lees Hall Hadfields because they owned freehold land in Charlestown.
The Jumble Estate consisting of 23 acres of closes, meadow and pasture land, named "Upper Roads", "Roads Wood", and "Roades Meadowes", "Bare Crest", and "Long Carr", was sold by Nicholas Charlesworth for 260 13s 4d to Thomas Booth of the Pyegrove on the 11th April, 1652. On the 9th November, 1682, he sold it to Thomas Wagstaffe of Glossop for 200. On the 13th April, 1709 Thomas Wagstaffe sold it to Robert France, of Glossop. On the 12th of October, 1715, Robert France dowered it to his daughter, who married a Joshua Hardye. The Hardyes removed to Bramhall, near Stockport, and sold the estate, 2nd December, 1729, to John Fielding of Whitfield, for 212. John Fielding, on the 10th of October, 1758 conveyed it to his son John, who died on the 7th October, 1799, leaving it to his wife Sarah, who was one of the Dinting Garlicks.
After her death the executors sold the estate to John and Joseph Bennett of Turn Lee Mills, for 490. Afterwards John Atherton, machinist of Hollingworth, bought Jumble estate for 900, and Whitfield Barn House and lands for 600.

The owners and occupiers of land and dwelling houses had Turbary rights i.e. the right to cut turf on another persons land; coal was not used, wood and turf being the fuel. The Little Moor, that is the land bounded by Victoria Street, Freetown and Gladstone Street, no doubt at one time was covered with turf, but got used up for fuel, and the Whitfield Turf Pits would then be opened.
The Whitfield Enclosure Act was passed in 1810, and the awards made in 1813. The Act stated clearly the rights of the inhabitants of the Hamlet of Whitfield to cut turf as the following extract from the Act will show.:-
"We have also set out and allotted, and do hereby award unto the Overseer or Overseers of the Poor of the said hamlet or Township of Whitfield for the time being, all that parcel of land, part of the said Commons, containing fifteen acres bounded by an allotment made to John Kershaw, James Kershaw, William Kershaw, and John Ashton, on the Black Moor by Peat Road, and an allotment made to the said Overseers, is for the purpose that all the Inhabitants of the said Hamlet or Township of Whitfield may have the privilege of cutting or getting turves or Furze for fuel thereon, subject nevertheless to the rules and regulations by us hereinafter prescribed, according to the directions of the said Act, that is to say, that the inhabitants of the said Township of Whitfield shall have for each dwelling house the privilege of cutting Turves across this allotment, within the space of six yards in width between the Peat Road and the opposite side of the allotment, in a parallel direction with the westerly side of the same, under and subject to such other rules as shall be prescribed by the said Overseer or Overseers of the Poor for the time being and the Churchwardens of the Township of Glossop.
Completed, Signed, Witnessed, etc., on the 12th day of July,1813.
Commissioners: Matthew Weston and William Gauntley, a Quaker.
Sworn in the presence of J. Frith, one of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the County of Derby.
"
The waste lands enclosed were about 1,000 acres, and divided by the Commission according to the quality of the land; the lots were unequal in area, the largest lots being of the poorest quality and the smallest the best. A stated time was fixed in which to erect the boundary walls. Those who had no stone on their land were entitled to get what they required from their nearest neighbour who had stone. Some of them who had allotments made to them sold their land to others before they would be at the trouble of building the boundary walls.

The Hamlet of Whitfield is bounded on the North and North-East by the Hurst Brook, which joins the Shelf Brook at the Crosscliffe footbridge; it then takes the name of the Glossop Brook; on the West it is bounded by the Primrose Brook, and on the South by the moors. The Glossop Brook course must have been altered at some time, because the portion of land from the corner of the foundry to Wren Nest Mills, on the Glossop side of the brook, is in Whitfield.

The Hamlet of Whitfield differs from the other hamlets by reason of the absence of hedges and trees. The leaseholders in the other hamlets were compelled, by the terms of their lease to plant trees, but the owners in Whitfield, being freeholders, would not go to the trouble and expense of doing so, hence its bleak appearance from the North.

Former Well Known Families.

Cross Cliffe Mill (wrongly described in Hamnett's original article as Whitfield Lower Mill (Shepley Mill)) was built by John Newton, of Whitfield, who obtained a lease of land 24th November, 1782. He assigned it to Abraham Shaw on the 28th January, 1815, and it eventually came into the possession of of William Hadfield, farmer, of Whitfield, who worked it until his death. In his will, proved 26th February, 1820, he left the mill to his sons, John, Robert, James and Joseph, all to have equal shares in it. William Hadfield possessed considerable land in Whitfield. To his son John he left Hollin Cross Meadow, Bridgefield Meadow, New Croft and the new piece on the Little Moor. John had a son Isaac, who was a St James' Ward Councillor in 1867-1870; he died in 1876. His son John, is the present owner of the Hadfield Wire Works. Hadfield Square perpetuates their name. To Robert was left Throstle Nest, Mill Moor, and Mill Moor Meadow; to James, Cross Cliffe, Kiln Croft Meadow, Bridgefield, Bridgefield Meadow, and Wood; to Joseph, Whitfield Leeches, Whitfield High Moor. The mill was known as Hadfield's Mill, Cross Cliffe Mill and Shoddy Bump Mill. In 1824 it was being worked by John Rusby, and was assessed on 1980 spindles. In 1832 it was John Rusby and Isaac Linney; the spindles had increased to 2938, and they had 32 looms working. John Rusby retired from business in 1840, and it was then worked solely by Isaac Linney. John Rusby died 28th May, 1845, aged 78. He had a son, Dr. John Rusby, who died 5th December, 1844, aged 40. He had a son, the Rev. William Henry Lees Rusby, formerly a curate at the Parish Church. He is lately deceased and has left a large sum of money to the Church.
In 1846 the owners were Milburn and Roberts. The mill was burned down 2nd June, 1868. Isaac Linney had considerable cottage property; he had 17 houses in Chapel Street, Linney's Court being called after him. He had 6 houses in Howardtown, and 13 at Cross Cliffe.
In the original article Hamnett wrote The Hadfield family is a very old one in this district. Moses Hadfield in 1728, Thomas Hadfield 1743, and Charles Hadfield 1795, left sums of money to the parish.. Those men were members of different Hadfield families (of Mattley, Hadfield and Lees Hall respectively).

The Kershaws were a numerous family, branches residing at Padfield, Tintwistle and Hollingworth. They were staunch Independents, and most of them are buried in the Tintwistle Independent and Littlemoor Chapel graveyards. A John Kershaw of Padfield, in 1788 was a dealer in cotton weft, and attended the Manchester markets. A John Kershaw, cotton twister of Arnfield, in 1792 took a lease of land at Arnfield for three lives and 99 years; the three lives were his sons, Samuel, aged 15 years, John aged 13 years, and Thomas, aged 9 years. Branches of the Kershaw family settled at the Hurst and Charlestown, at the end of the 18th or the beginning of the 19th centuries.

We find John Kershaw owner and occupier of the Hurst Mill in 1811, but he had erected it prior to that date. One of the leaden spouts of the house he occupied is dated 1804. The house is now occupied by the Brothers Ward, who are descendants of the Kershaws. In 1811 the mill was assessed on 3600 spindles. John Kershaw was in partnership with his brother James, and the partnership was dissolved by mutual consent on the 14th July, 1826. He continued the business until 1831, when he was succeeded by his son John. John Kershaw senior, died 15th January, 1838 aged 70, and was buried in the family vault at Littlemoor; his widow, Nanny, died 11th December, 1851, aged 70; Elizabeth daughter, died 23rd November, 1842 aged 38; Martha, daughter, 6th September, 1853 aged 33; Hannah, daughter, died 8th August, 1870, aged 65. John Kershaw junior, died 4th December, 1861 aged 61. The mill then came into the possession of Frederic Buckley, who rebuilt it and worked it until he suffered disastrous financial losses by the burning and destruction of cotton belonging to him, and uninsured, at the bombardment of Alexandria. John Kershaw senior, had two brothers, James the father of Robert, and William, father of Samuel Kershaw.

The Charlestown Mill, alias Whitfield Mill, now Walton and Co's Bleach Mill, was built by John Hadfield, of Lees Hall, in 1795 (in fact John inherited the mill from his father, Charles, in that year). In 1811 it was occupied by George Robinson, whose only daughter had married William Kershaw, on the 21st September, 1803, and through this marriage the Kershaws became connected with the Charlestown Mill. It was worked by a company, William, John and James Kershaw, and John Wood of Hadfield, the father of the late John Wood, of Ardern Hall. The partnership was dissolved on the 14th July, 1826, the same day as the Hurst partnership was dissolved. During their occupation of Charlestown Mill they put in a steam engine, the first to be used in a mill at Glossop. The business was then carried on by James Kershaw, machine maker, who came from Hollingworth to Charlestown in 1816, where he died 13th June, 1836, aged 65, and was buried at Tintwistle. His widow Judith died 26th May, 1843, aged 70; Robert, son died 13th January, 1864, aged 59; Margaret, daughter, died 26th August, 1886, aged 84; Mary, daughter, died 13th January, 1889, aged 79. After the decease of James the mill was worked by Robert Kershaw, who had for his partner James Bosley, who had retired from the Silk Mill, where for over 13 years he had been a partner in the firm of Bosley, Smith and Co., silk manufacturers. In 1843 they had dissolved partnership, and the mill was occupied by George Fox.

Hamnett went on to describe the life of Robert Kershaw, which is the subject of this separate article, so not repeated here.

William Kershaw, besides being a partner in the Charlestown Mill, was also the occupier of Turn Lee Mills, built in 1805 and 1815. One was in the Hamlet of Whitfield and the other Simmondley. He worked the mills until he died 13th August, 1823, aged 49. His son Samuel, was then only two years of age, and the business became John and Joseph Bennett's. One of these Bennetts was related through marriage to the Kershaws. In 1846 Samuel Kershaw was in possession; he died 7th August, 1873 aged 57; Mary, his widow, died 20th March, 1876, aged 63. Samuel was a waste dealer and one of the unsuccessful candidates for St. James' Ward at the first municipal election.

The Bennetts are an old Whitfield family and owned land in Whitfield in 1608. A John Bennett in 1716 left 50, the interest to go to the relief of the poor. John Bennett and his brother Joseph were paper makers at Turn Lee Mills. One of the mills was burned down during their time and rebuilt by them They also worked the Dover and the Tip or Woollen Mill which they enlarged. The Bennetts failed in 1832 and about 1841, when they served a term of imprisonment, the residence of one of the Bennetts was Turn Lee House. Both of them took an active part in parochial matters. Robert John Lees married a daughter of Joseph Bennett, and lived at Turn Lee House until he emigrated. John died 18th October, 1848, aged 51. He was married three times. His first wife, Alice, died 2nd August, 1826, aged 25; his second wife, Millicent, was a Hadfield, she died 23rd January, 1834, aged 31; his third wife, Ellen, died 21st August, 1838, aged 33. Joseph, son of John and Alice, died 19th August, 1842, aged 20; Walter, son of John and Millicent, died 30th July, 1870, aged 35; Millicent, daughter of John and Millicent, died 28th March, 1843; John, son of John and Alice, died 25th August, 1844, aged 25. All died unmarried.
His eldest daughter married Dr. Wardlow Howard. Another daughter, Alice, in 1854, married a German called Hellmuth Petschler. A daughter Alice Bennett Petschler, died May 24th 1879, aged 16; another daughter used to contribute poetry to the "Glossop-dale Chronicle."
Joseph Bennett, born 27th June, 1800, died 25th April, 1863, his wife, Hannah, had predeceased him 13th January, 1849, aged 42. The Bennetts at one time were wealthy and well respected in the district. They were trustees of Hague's Endowed School.

Joseph Bennett's eldest son, Charles William, was the manager of the mill, and married Mary Ann, the sister of Thomas Hamer Ibbotson, paper manufacturer, of Manchester. The mills were worked by Henry Hunt, and during his occupancy the mills were sold 29th July, 1852. At that time there were two mills, one five storeys high 64 feet long, and 32 feet 6 inches wide; the other four storeys high, and 34 feet 6 inches wide. There were two boilers, 27 feet 6 inches long, and 7 and 9 feet in circumference. There were five engines, 5,8,12, and two 20 horse power. It was an unlucky day for Mr. T. H. Ibbotson when he started business as a manufacturer at Turn Lee. On the 16th May, 1860, he had a fire and had 1500 cotton waste burnt, but he got at loggerheads with his neighbour at the Bleach Mill, Christopher Greaves Middleton, who had taken a lease of this mill 10th August, 1859; he had sub-let it to William Middleton and Daniel Fox, papermakers. The law case, which was tried 18th March, 1852 caused a great deal of excitement and local feeling. Ibbotson, and the defendant, C.G. Middleton. It proved disastrous to the plaintiff, T.H. Ibbotson.
Mr. Ibbotson was also working the Primrose Mill as a staining mill, and also suffered by a fire on December 12th, 1866. He struggled hard, but had to call his creditors together 16th January,1868, He died 17th September, 1873, aged 51, and was buried from his residence Hollincross House.

Messrs. Cassell, Petter and Galpin, the celebrated publishers, started paper making at Turn Lee, 16th January, 1872, but soon had enough, and gave up the business.

In 1873 Messrs. Olive and Partington became tenants of Turn Lee Mills. The fact that other firms had not been successful did not deter them, and forthwith they began to make dramatic changes. Everything was overhauled, defects made good, improvements made, and the ability of the workpeople weighed up; and at the head was Sir Edward Partington - then plain Mr. During the last 40 years he seems never to have rested; his energy is and has always been remarkable; he has never been afraid of spending money on inventions and in trying experiments. Some failed, others have been highly successful, both financially to the firm and the benefit of the whole world.
It was no uncommon sight 40 years ago to see lurry loads of esparto grass, old rags and ropes, old paper, etc., being taken from the station to Turn Lee to be made into paper. What a contrast from those days to the present. Now we have whole train loads of timber from all parts of the world coming to Glossop to be made into wood pulp and paper. It took many years of experiments, full of disappointments, before the present system became successful-a system which has revolutionised the whole paper trade, and been of the greatest benefit to publishers of every description. It has brought newspapers and magazines to a price never dreamed of 30 years ago, and to the head of Turn Lee Paper Mills must most of the credit be given for such results.
It was not long before the mills were too small and required an extension, so 7,788 yards of land was leased in 1876. Six years after 3,630 yards more were required and leased, and the old woollen mill in Turn Lee Road was bought to secure the water rights. New mills have been erected, and the whole aspect of Charlestown changed. The progress made has been amazing, and scarcely credible, had many of us not seen the gradual improvements with our own eyes. And not only at Turn Lee has Sir Edward Partington been busy, but elsewhere. The Dover Mills, Ramsbottom paper Mill Co., Broughton Bridge Mills, Barrow-in-Furness Mills, Borregaard Mills (Norway), Hallein Mills (Austria),- all these are evidence that Sir Edward Partington is justly known throughout the world as the "Paper King".
Miss Olive, the daughter of Mr. William Olive, had an interest in the firm, but she was paid off many years ago. The firm was floated as a Limited Company, and the shares offered for subscription on Wednesday, 20th February, 1901. The capital was 400,000, divided into 40,000 five per cent cumulative preference shares of 5 each, and 40,000 ordinary shares of 5 each. Those who had the money and were cute enough to invest have never regretted.
Sir Edward Partington was an apprentice at Heap Bridge, near Bury, afterwards Duxbury's Paper Mill. He learned all the business, and became managing partner with Olive Brothers.
He has not devoted the whole of his time to private business, but has taken an active part in public business. In 1874 he became a councillor for St. James' Ward, and for six years he remained a representative. He remained out of the council for 12 months, but was again returned for St. James' Ward in 1881 for another three years. In 1884 he unsuccessfully contested All Saints' Ward. In 1886 he was returned unopposed for St. James' Ward and represented the Ward until he was elected an Alderman, 5th June, 1907. He was elected a freeman of the Borough 27th October, 1906; was the mayor, 1902-4; Borough Magistrate 5th September, 1887; and County Magistrate January, 1889. He was knighted 25th June, 1912.
He was decorated by the Austrian Emperor, Francis Joseph I, with the Star of the Order of St. Josef in September, 1908. He has been deeply interested in new supplies of water for the Borough, and spent a considerable time in investigating the supplies available. He is chairman of the Waterworks Committee.
When the Sewage Committee was formed, 6th June, 1894 he was elected the chairman and has remained so ever since. He has been a Poor Law Guardian, and was elected the chairman, 21st April, 1886. On the 3rd April, 1886, he was appointed chairman of the High Peak Liberal Association, and is the head of the Liberal party in the division.
At a meeting at New Mills of the High Peak Liberal association, 7th February, 1890 he was adopted as the Liberal candidate for the division, but did not accept it. He has always been interested in the Volunteer Movement and when the Glossop Volunteer Corps was formed, he gave 100 towards the initial expense, and on the 10th January, 1876, was one among the first batch of officers to take the Oath of Allegiance. He was Captain of Number 2 Company of the 23rd Derby Rifle Volunteers, afterwards M Company of the 4th administrative Battalion Cheshire Regiment. He resigned his commission 3rd March 1888, much to the regret of all who had been and were in his company. That his interest even yet does not lack, was shown by his presenting their badges to over 400 of the Glossop National Reserves. Both of his sons have also been officers in the Glossop Rifle Corps.
The number of bazaars, sales of work, etc., that he has opened during his 40 years residence amongst us would fill a column of this paper. He is not a sectarian; all creeds have benefited by his benevolence. In 1900 he purchased Lord Hampton's Westwood Estate in Worcestershire, near Droitwich, for 70,000. According to the "World", the estate comprises about 3100 acres; including extensive woods. The Elizabethan manor house, which is one of the finest in England, contains a magnificent banqueting hall and a private chapel with some very choice stained glass. There are charming old fashioned gardens and a well timbered deer park of 200 acres, in which is a picturesque lake of 60 acres. There was a Benedictine nunnery at Westwood until the Reformation, when the manor was granted by Henry VIII to Sir John Pakington, in whose family the estate has since remained. Mr. Partington took over the deer in the park and bought the timber at a valuation, and had the option of taking the tapestry in the house valued at a thousand pounds.

Bridgefield Mill was built in 1784 by John Garlick on part of the Mill Moor, belonging to William Hadfield. In 1781 it was sold to John Shepley, of Simmondley Bridge. Bridgefield Bridge was known as Simmondley Bridge at that period. Mr. Shepley soon after died, and letters of administration were taken out by Samuel Shepley, tanner, Charlesworth, and George Garside, liquor merchant, of Stockport, and assigned by them 1st January, 1905, to William Shepley.
In May, 1795, a twelve years lease was granted to James Wright; at the expiration of the lease the mill was leased to William Wardlow for 1000 years. He worked it for many years, but in 1824 his son in law, Joseph Howard, was the occupier, and remained for a lengthy period. In 1851 Mr. T. P. Sykes was the occupier. The mill was destroyed by fire about 1874, and was never rebuilt. At the present time scarcely a vestige remains.

William Wardlow was also the owner and occupier of Bankwood Mill. He died at Openshaw 22nd January, 1863, aged 77. Mary his wife, died 27th January, 1846, aged 56. To his daughter, Mary, wife of Joseph Howard, and his daughter Sarah, wife of Benjamin Harrison, cotton manufacturer, Kinder Lees Mill, he left 1,200 each; to his daughter Jane, wife of Thomas Garside, of the Hague, the interest of 1,200 for life. The late Dr. William Wardlow was the son of Joseph Howard; and the John Howard who built the Grapes Inn in 1845 was also related to him. A son of Joseph Howard lived and died in Primrose Lane.

Primrose Mill was built by Joseph Hadfield, of Lees Hall, and in 1811 was occupied by William Ratcliffe, who was a member of the Select Vestry. He however was too fond of sport, neglected his business, and eventually died a pauper. About 1835, George Robinson, one of the Gnat Hole Robinsons had the mill for a woollen mill. In 1838 Joseph Howard worked it in conjunction with the Bridgefield Mill. It was let on 20th January, 18722. It has now disappeared, only some of the foundations remaining. Mr. Entwistle has the site for a nursery garden.

Brook Street Mill. I do not know who erected this small mill, and when, or for what purpose it was used, but probably it was Jesse and John Hall, machinists, who had a 99 year lease granted, 21st June. 1854. It was bounded on the North by William Lawton's property, and on the South by land occupied by John Kinder. In 1871 Mr. James Howard Ryder, paper maker and tinfoil maker, of Parkfield House, Rusholme, commenced business in it. One of his workpeople was defrauding him; it was found out, an on the 18th October, 1871, he was sentenced at the Derby Assizes to three months' imprisonment. On the 9th of January, 1875, a Thomas Jenkins bought the machinery, plant and fixtures.

In 1846 there were naphtha works near the Beehive, but I have never found out who was the proprietor. The owner was James Robinson. This James Robinson was the owner of a considerable number of dwelling houses; he built the Surrey Arms in Victoria Street, and three houses which he called 'Norfolk Buildings'; the lease dates from the 28th March, 1846. The inn was purchased by the Boddington Brewery Co., who obtained a 999 years lease of the premises on the 25th March, 1891.
Mr. Robinson also built in 1849 the Whitfield Brewery, which was sold on the 2nd October, 1867, for 660 to Thomas Hampson, on the 27th October, 1876, to Samuel Clarkson, brewer, Barnsley. It afterwards became Walton's Brewery, with Adam Slater as the brewer. He made a special brew of ale for the late Lord Howard of Glossop to be consumed when the present Lord came of age. It was buried, and I have been told that when it was opened, it was stingo; only one pint for each person was allowed, and even that proved too much for some - it was true barley wine. The premises are now used as a laundry, the proprietor, Ald B. Furniss, having opened it as such in October, 1895.
The wells adjoining the laundry have often been decorated at the Old Wakes. The water supply has been a difficulty in past years with the Freetown district. Many of the houses even now do not get supplied by the corporation, but have to pay water rates. On 26th January, 1851, we find that the before mentioned James Robinson agreed to supply water to Mr. John Hadfield's tenants in Hollincross Lane.

Hurst and Cross Cliffe Bridges were built by the Constable of Glossop, but there is no record of the date. When the Victoria Hall Library was opened, I gave a number of interesting books to the library, some of them rare, amongst them was one entitled "The timber trees of North Derbyshire." The author states that he accompanied his father when Mr. Ellison was appointed agent to the Glossop Estate, and assisted in beating the boundaries, and he writes thus of Whitfield (Victoria) Bridge. "The bridge at Glossop, Howard Town, was at that time (1799) a pack saddle bridge, but was shortly afterwards widened and otherwise improved, especially as to its approaches, which were, on the Whitfield side, steep and inconvenient."
Anyone who remembers the land on the West side of the present bridge, and who looks at the high wall to the East of it, can well understand what it would be at that date. The old road was to the East of the present bridge, and went up Smithy Fold and Ellison Street. On the 5th February, 1834, Francis Osborne was killed by falling over the old bridge. On the 31st December, 1848, Jabez Doxey, an old pensioner, aged 61, was found in the brook course, having been killed by falling or being thrown over the bridge. His son, Thomas, was committed to the Assizes on a charge of murdering his father, but on 10th April, 1849, was acquitted, there being no evidence to prove him guilty. On the 17th June, 1836, it was decided to erect a new bridge, which was completed in 1837 and named Victoria Bridge, in commemoration of the ascension of Queen Victoria to the throne in that year. The road, which had been known as Little Moor, was named Victoria Street.
On the 11th July, 1888, plans for the widening of Victoria Bridge were passed by the Highway Committee. It was stated that the bridge would afterwards be kept in repair by the County Authorities. Lord Howard took down the railings on the South boundary of the Market Ground, bricked and arched over the brook course, and extended the Market Ground.

George Street Foot Bridge was an ancient bridge, and had been washed down by floods many times. On the 19th February, 1902, Lord Howard of Glossop offered to put up a new bridge. His offer was accepted, and on the 1st October, 1902 the bridge was completed, and the approaches to it improved. It has proved to be a great public convenience, especially now the Picture Palace has been erected, which is built on the site of the George Street Foundry.
The George Street Foundry was built by Josiah Swain in 1856. He had previously had a foundry behind the old Swan Inn, High Street East. At the George Street Foundry were cast the stumps that adorn (?) Norfolk square. The foundry afterwards became Blackwell's Foundry. During their occupation an explosion occurred, which alarmed all Glossop; hundreds of people rushed from their homes thinking, from the noise, that the Gas Works had blown up.

Shepley Mill Bridge was built by the Turnpike Trustees in 1803, and afterwards enlarged.

The Jerrytown footbridge, opposite the Hanging Gate was sold 23rd July, 1902, to Mr. Thomas Harrison, and a new one erected.

Dinting and Primrose bridges were built in 1804.

The Turn Lee Footbridge (Flag Field) was built in 1821 by the Constable.

Charlestown Bridge was built by the Turnpike Trustees about 1793.

Gnat Hole House Foot Bridge, an ancient bridge, was washed down in 1836. It is now in good condition.

Gnat Hole Bridge, the old pack horse bridge was built in 1809 by the Commissioners of the Whitfield Enclosure, but there has been a bridge there for centuries.

Whitfield's Dwellings, Ancient and Modern.

If you want to find out the oldest houses in a hamlet, you must go to the farm houses or the houses abutting the old bridle paths and turnpike roads. The old bridle or pack saddle road in the hamlet of Whitfield was the one from Peak Forest to Woodhead. This road entered Whitfield at Gnat Hole, came along Hague Street to Whitfield Cross, where there was a branch along Cliffe Road, Cross Cliffe, Milltown to Old Glossop, for the convenience of people attending the Parish Church, Markets, and the village of Glossop. The branch road went down Whitfield Cross, Gladstone Street, Smithy Fold, Ellison Street, to Woodhead. At Freetown a branch road went down Hollincross Lane, Slatelands, and entered Simmondley at Bridgefield.

The houses at Leantown were built by Elizabeth Hampson in 1806. Why it is called Leantown I have never been able to find out.

Lane End cottages, originally Siah House, Nos 67 and 60, Hague Street were built in 1805; Nos. 60 and 62, in 1751; No. 45 by Robert Thornley in 1638 (his descendants are well known in Whitfield): Thornley's Court and nos. 74-78 were built or owned by one of them, William Thornley in 1860; No 29, Hague Street in 1773, by R and J.D., probably a Dearnley. Nos. 2-6 by Dan Nield in 1831. He was one of the Chunal Nields, and was interested in Whitfield Endowed School. No 35, Whitfield Cross, in 1773; Nos. 2-8 by William Robinson in 1849.

Many of my readers will remember "Old Billy". He was connected with the cotton trade, was a cotton master at one part of his life, and was manager at Wren Nest for many years. His brother James built the Whitfield Brewery in 1849 and cottage property in Whitfield. On the 17th of August, 1867, William Robinson was presented with a gold watch by the workpeople at Wren Nest Mills, he having been the manager for 25 years. His wife was presented with a silver teapot. The presentation took place in the Primitive Methodist Schoolroom, and there were 800 persons present. He died in Shaw Street on the 20th June, 1878, aged 82. Sarah his wife died 27th August, 1870 aged 73. Their son Thomas Robinson was the manager at Shepley Mill for many years. On the 23rd of November, 1870 he was the unsuccessful candidate at the bye-election caused by Coun. G. Wooffenden being elected an Alderman. On the 27th March, 1887, he was presented with an address by the scholars and teachers of the Howard Town Wesleyan Sunday School on the occasion of his removing from Glossop to Colwyn Bay. He was for many years the superintendent of the Sunday School.

James Robinson also built in 1847, the Surrey Arms and the houses adjoining, which he called "Norfolk Buildings." He died 2nd December, 1852 leaving two sons, George and James, also a daughter, Mary, wife of William Clayton.

The Roebuck Inn was built in 1851 by William Prince, who was also the occupier for many years. His father was a paper maker, and first came to Glossop to work for messrs. Samuel Oliver and Jones at the Dinting Mill (the old Logwood Mill) William had a brother, Mark Anthony Prince, a well known lamp lighter. On the 14th of October 1874, The Roebuck was sold to Jonathan Earnshaw, who occupied it the remainder of his life, and his widow occupied it for some years after. On the 30th, November 1896, the inn was sold by public auction to the Openshaw Brewery Co. for 3600 - a record and ridiculous price to pay for a beer house in Whitfield.
Mr. Earnshaw had a son, Edward, who will be remembered as being the organ blower at St. James' Church for many years.

Freetown is really part of Hollincross Road (now Lane); it was called Freetown on account of the land being mostly freehold. The oldest house is no 28 built in 1809 and long owned and occupied by Robert Bennett. The chief rent was sold 29th June 1891 to Mrs. Wood for 52 who also bought the chief rents of the Unity Street property. No 28 was sold 16th January 1893 to Ald B. Furniss for 445, it has an outdoor licence attached to it.
The late Mrs. Sarah Hargreaves of Hadfield Street, remembered Freetown when this house was the only house in the road. On each side were hedges right down to Pikes Farm. The next houses to be built were Nos. 36 and 36a, in 1830 by Peter Handford, better known as "Peter before the Shower." Many houses were built in 1835 and 1836 but the majority now existing were built during the last 60 years.

Unity Street was formerly Orange Row, six houses on each side. The street was built in 1832 by No. 596 Lodge of the Orange Society which afterwards became No 777 Britons' Glory Lodge, Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity, hence the name of the Street - Unity.

Kershaw Street is named after Robert Kershaw; the oldest houses are Nos. 104-110 built in 1834. The "Pig and Whistle" was a beerhouse in Kershaw St., at the corner of Derby St. It was built by James Jackson, who kept a lot of pigs and this caused the present Hadfield Square to be known as "Bacon Square". It has officially been known by its present name since 20th December, 1893.

Wood Street presents a different appearance today than it did a few years ago. When I first remembered it there was a disused brick yard in the centre, with numerous depressions, which after heavy rain became dangerous to children playing there; in fact there have been cases of children drowning there.

The Recreation Ground is a sample of what ought to be in other parts of the Borough. The Reading Room and Library is a handsome building given by Mr. George Ollerenshaw of Mere Hall Knutsford. The Library contains a very good selection of books, well worthy of being read by any one in the Borough. I am sure if they were more generally known, book readers would oftener use them. The houses built by Mr. Ollerenshaw differ in style to any other, and , before long, when the remaining land is built on, Wood Street will be the prettiest street in the town.

The oldest houses existing in Gladstone Street - many have been pulled down - are those known as Bell Man's Hall belonging to the Heys. They were built by Jonathan Hey, clothier in 1808, who died 17th June 1848, aged 67. The property was divided amongst Jonathan, Giles, Walter, Abel and Mary Heys. No 1, The Chapel House, was built in 1847 as the residence of the Minister of Littlemoor Independent Chapel, and remained so until the present Manse was built in 1894.

The Hampsons. Bank Street, Nos. 1-5 were built by Joseph Hampson, formerly a grocer, and for many years the landlord of the Royal Oak Inn. He was at one time an Overseer and a Poor Law Guardian. He was an out and out Tory, one of the old school and a regular daily attendant at the Glossop Conservative Club. He died 29th January, 1901 aged 86. The Hampsons originally came from Nantwich to a farm in Hague Street known as Hampson's Field. John Hampson was killed by falling from a cart load of hay in a field where Mr. Charles Bradbury's butchers shop is. His son , John died 13th September, 1857 leaving a numerous family, all of them well known persons. Ann married a Newton, John built the Crown Inn, Victoria Street in 1846. At that time there was a small triangular shaped plantation there with a saw pit, worked by Ormes. Nancy married Dan Nield; Joseph I have previously mentioned; Robert was owner of property; Betty married John Pott who built the Manor Inn in 1839. George was also a property owner, and Thomas, the youngest was the best known of all. He died 15th February. 1887, aged 61. Thomas Hampson was a town councillor 1880-1886, representing St. James' Ward and at the time of his death a Poor Law Guardian. He married Mary Mitchell eldest daughter of Alderman Woodcock, of the Norfolk Arms. He built Highfield House in 1872, and died there. By trade he was a quarry owner and contractor, as was his father before him. Hampson Street is called after him. During his life he built a considerable amount of cottage property.

King Street. In 1840 the Trustees of the Littlemoor Independent Chapel built a school which which they occupied until the present school was erected. The old school was then converted into cottages, Nos. 1-11 and sold 15th August, 1887 to William Higginbottom for 756. His widow still owns them. In 1849 William Harrison built Nos. 12-18 on land belonging to Robert Wagstaffe, called the "Chapel Croft." In 1858 the houses were sold for 390 to another William Harrison, dresser. I am sure many of my readers will remember him. He had a very big head, was rather of an eccentric disposition, and fully believed that England was being ruined by introduction and use of machinery - no amount of argument could convince him otherwise.
In 1855 Ben Grayson, joiner, built No. 2-10 also a workshop which was used for a time as the Kershaw Institute. In the cotton panic it was used as a soup house, many thousands of gallons being made there and served out to the famished cotton operatives.

Victoria Street. The Albion Inn was built in 1832 by Charles Calvert, and assigned 29th September, 1859 to George Goldsmith, who died 14th March, 1866. The Inn was sold 20th June 1872 to Thomas Chester for 1600. Nos. 31-47 Victoria Street were built by Robert Wagstaffe in 1822 and are known as "Mutton Row", the houses having been sold to James Wagstaffe cattle dealer, Tintwistle on the 31st October, 1849 for 650. They are now in the possession of Miss Alice Wagstaffe.
The above Robert Wagstaffe was the son of George Wagstaffe, of Woodseats, Charlesworth, and from him inherited valuable land in Derby and King Streets. He died 27th July, 1866, aged 85. His son George had predeceased him, leaving sons called Hiram and Robert and a daughter Ann. Robert Wagstaffe left a son, Thomas who was an auctioneer and valuer, and a daughter Mary, wife of Samuel Booth, druggist, of Broadbottom. Robert Wagstaffe was one of the fortunate persons who received a portion of the Whitfield Award. He had no 7 and no 19 allotments, and he sold the latter 25th July 1861 for 1060 to Messrs. John, Daniel and Samuel Wood, and on it now are the Moorfield Mansion and grounds. The area of the plot was over 21 acres. In 1826 he also built Nos. 8-14 High Street East.
The next oldest houses in Victoria Street are Nos 135-141, built by Edward Bennett in 1826. They were sold in 1856 by Samuel Dearnley to Thomas Wagstaffe, cattle dealer, and by him in 1868 to Edward Woolley, butcher, and are now owned by Charles Bradbury, butcher. There appears to have been for a great number of years, a member of the Wagstaffe family, either a butcher or a cattle dealer in Glossop, the last of that name being ex-councillor John Wagstaff, who for many years was in business in High Street East.
In St. James' Ward we have Nos. 28-38 "The Shivering Row", so called owing to the many time the foundations have given way. On the 7th May, 1862, the houses were struck by lightning, the roof and back part of the houses fell in.
Park Terrace owes it name to the fact that the houses overlook "Pinch Belly Park", where men were employed during the cotton panic getting sand for 1s a day. It is now better known as the "Sandhole," The proper name is Hare Hill Wood, though the trees have long since disappeared. It was formerly a noted place for prize fighting.
Waterhouse Place is called after John Waterhouse, who built Nos. 56-64, in 1837.
Harrop's Place was built by George Harrop, joiner, in 1847. The old joiners shop has been used as a place of worship and for many other purposes.
Thornley's Court was owned in 1860 by William Thornley.
Nos. 88-94, were built in 1851, by Aaron Howard, fish dealer, greengrocer, and beerhouse keeper.
No 90 was the beerhouse.
The large lamp at the junction with Saint Mary's Road was erected in 1892.
The fountain was erected in 1882 by Mrs. Wood of Whitfield House.

Charlestown Road was known and described in deeds as Lower Whitfield. Nos. 1-13 were built in 1828, by George Bradbury, and were known as "The Noon Sun." There was formerly a beerhouse in one of them, called the noon sun. The sun at 12 o'clock noon shone on the south door. There is a place in the gable end where the sun dial used to be. There used to be a joiners shop over the beerhouse. The old wall in front was pulled down, and a new one built in line with the houses in 1904, a decided improvement.
The Nags Head was formerly a farmhouse with extensive outbuildings; it was first called "The Quiet Woman." It was sold 26th July, to Chesters Ltd for 1440. All the land in this neighbourhood is freehold, belonging to the Ashton Family (Ashton Street).
Acre Street, Nos. 1-9, 27-31, Charlestown Road, was built in 1833, by Lot Maltby, blacksmith.

On the 19th April, 1871, Mr. George Benton, railway contractor, of Clyne House, Stretford, purchased the Hollincross Meadow, and other closes of land, from the executors of Robert Wagstaffe, for 2278. Mount Street, part of Princess Street, and St Mary's Road, are on this Meadow. This purchase encouraged building, and houses soon began to be put up.
Mr. George Benton was not a Glossopian; he was born at Dore, 4th November, 1825. He came to Glossop and began business as a builder and contractor. He was very successful, and in 1869 he removed to Clyne House, where he died 10th June, 1887, leaving a fortune of 605,670 10s 10d. He built Hollincross House. Why not name a street after him?

Green's Square and Nos. 8-12 St Mary's Road, were built in 1847, by Thomas Green, banksman. One of the houses was a beerhouse called "The Pedestrians Inn," and was the headquarters of the Glossop Botanical Society.
The lower part of St. Mary's Road was formerly a meadow called "The Big Close" occupied 90 years ago by Benjamin Rolfe who was working Shepley Mill.

Shaw Street; the first in this street were built by John Shaw in 1854, he also built the adjoining houses in St. Mary' Road. He had two daughters. Eliza wife of William Atkin, and Mary wife of William Edward Atkin. No. 20 was formerly a model lodging house for young women, inaugurated by the late Lady Howard. It afterwards became the Glossop Cottage Hospital supported by voluntary subscriptions. On the 12th of January, 1886 there was a grand ball in the Town Hall in aid of it. After Wood's Hospital was opened it was closed, there being no necessity for it.

Sumner Street was built in 1887 by John Lynch Ward, who was the contractor for the building of of Sumner's Memorial Church.

Princess Street was formerly two fields; a footpath went through them. I well remember the stiles, one near to Mount Pleasant Chapel, and the other at the exit to Pikes Lane, which in 1871 was a cow lane to Pikes Farm.
During the paving and sewering of this street, the old Roman Road from Melandra to Brough, was discovered on the south side of Princess St. It went across the Sandhole to Crosscliffe, part of it is still visible in a field near Bank Street, behind No 1 King Street.
The houses in Princess Street first began to be erected in 1879, Joseph Winterbottom, Samuel Ashton, and Samuel Beard being the first to build there.

About John Street there were about 60 years ago some Naphtha Works belonging to Owen Barber. By some means the works got on fire, and the dense smoke hung over Glossop for two days, practically putting the town in darkness.

Pikes Lane is the lane leading to Pikes Farm, which was built in 1780, by Samuel Wagstaff. The name Pikes means a burial place. It was originally intended that the lane should be continued to the Junction, but there was some difficulty with one of the leaseholders, and it was abandoned after much work had been done and considerable expense incurred. One of the occupiers of Pikes Farm was Thomas Preston auctioneer, and a former landlord of the Junction Inn. He died 2nd October, 1847, aged 78, a well known and respected Glossopian.

Queen Street, built on Mill Moor Meadow and Throstle Nest, was built in 1852. There was a footpath from High Street West, through these fields to Pikes Farm. The builders of the houses overlooked the water supply, and when the houses were finished there was a difficulty over the water supply, and the street was nicknamed "Dry Mount".
On the 19th April, 1860 the following leaseholders were granted permission by Lord Howard to lay water pipes there, viz. Daniel James, John France, Robert Arnfield, James Whitehead, David Mayhall, James Arnfield, Anthony Ollerenshaw, James Barnes, William Fielding and J. Grimshaw.

Primrose lane was not properly opened out until the branch road was made from the Junction to Charlestown. The first houses were built in 1838; in 1860 25 of them belonged to Thomas Howard, whom I have previously mentioned. No. 4 was a beerhouse called "The Traveller's Call", kept and owned by Thomas Watts. He was a gardener, and this house was a noted house for tulip shows. On the 4th June, 1859 there was a tulip show divided into 10 classes, for which 48 prizes were competed for.
Primrose House was built by one of the Hadfield's of Lees Hall. For some years it was the residence of F. Sumner. It was long a private School. (Miss Lotties' hence Lotties Lane).
The Primrose Inn was built and occupied by William Clayton, his daughters still have property in Primrose Lane. Many of my readers may wonder why there were so many beerhouses in practically cottage houses. The reason was, in 1830, a Beer Act was passed, which enabled almost any one to take out a beer licence for a nominal sum. The idea was to counteract the sale of foreign wines. When the Act was amended and licence only granted to houses assessed at a certain sum, the majority of them ceased to exist.

High Street West from Shepley Mill Bridge to the Iron Bridge was Called "Green Vale," About the Hanging Gate it was Throstle Nest, and near the Grapes Inn, Jerry Town. Starting from Shepley Mill Bridge, No 117 was built by Mr. Lawton, also some houses in Brook Street. The derivation of the name is quite evident from the Glossop Brook bounding it on the east. Nos. 119-125 were built in 1824 by Thomas Braddock who was a roller turner, but afterwards kept a druggist shop in one of the houses. His son Robert Braddock, was for 34 years a postman.
Old Robert was one of the best known postmen that ever lived in Glossop. Once he had a near escape from drowning, falling into the brook at the Old Cross. On the 9th December, 1865 he fell down in Bernard Street and died immediately. He was born 3rd September, 1813.
Nos. 127-137, were built by Samuel Garside in 18??; he died 29th March, 1852 leaving the property to his sister Mary, wife of Jesse Hall. She sold it the same year to William Garside, hatter for 670. The property afterwards became William Smith's, whose son Thomas is now the owner.
Nos. 139-147, were built by George Beaver in 1831, and remain in the family.
Nos. 140-185 were built in 1835, by Thomas Jackson, warp dresser; the land was called Mill Brow Close and Throstle Nest, and extended to Queen Street.
Nos. 205-213 were built by Robert Nutter, cotton Dresser, in 1836, he died 4th December, 1840 leaving a widow Elizabeth and children: John; Robert, weaver; Mary who married Edward Walton, overlooker, 25th January 1836, she died 9th May 1843; Margaret married William Goddard, overlooker, 12th August 1839, she died 1st February, 1848; Ann married John Fielding spinner, 9th August, 1840; Esther married John Bowden, lawyer, of Burn Cross, Yorkshire, 1st March 1846, Elizabeth died 16th April, 1853.
John Nutter gave 371 for the property, in 1866 it was sold to Thomas McKnight for 470. In 1880 it was sold to George Benton, and in 1889 to Francis Hawke. John Nutter occupied No 213 for many years. I remember it as a newspaper shop and lending library.
Nos. 215-231 were built in 1836 by Abraham Booth on land called Wren Nest Brow, which land contains also Nos. 249-257, and Nos 1-7 Sumner's Place, built in 1824, by Jerry Sykes, shop keeper and farmer. The year following he also built Nos. 289-203 and Nos 1-3 Howard's Place. This neighbourhood is commonly called Jerry Town.
Jerry Sykes died 4th December, 1856 aged 77, his son Edward died 5th May, 1878 aged 52.
Nos. 273-275 with houses in Cooper Street, belonged to in 1846, to Joshua Dewsnap, landlord of the Hanging Gate Inn. His daughter Sarah married Joseph Walton, factory operative. The Hanging Gate belonged to David Cooper. Cooper Street is named after him. There used to be a spring or well near to the Inn, which was the cause of many disturbances amongst the neighbouring tenants. Spring Street keeps up the remembrance of these squabbles.
The Grapes Inn and the houses in the rear in Howard's Place, were built in 1845, by John Howard, book-keeper, on land called "Mow Wood."
The Junction Inn was built in 1817, on a 99 year lease. The land was then Pikes Plantation. Mr. Jacob Kaye in 1874 obtained a new lease for 999 years. A rather exciting affair took place opposite to the Inn in 1829, the mail coach "The Umpire" overturning, one man being seriously hurt.
The old houses opposite the Grapes Inn were built in 1817 by Joseph Cooper, farmer, Dinting, in a field called the Kid Bottom; to the east was a plantation extending to Wren Nest Mill.
The Globe Inn was the headquarters of the local botanists after they left the Pedestrian Inn. They had a nice collection of specimens and a quantity of valuable books; it is a pity that they were not able to keep the collection together. In 1850 the Globe Benefit Society was held here, the Trustees being Francis Sumner, John Wood, and John Kershaw, who in 1852 were Trustees of the Lamb Inn Building Society, but had removed from the Globe.
The Balloon Tavern was a beer house on the south side of the Derbyshire Level, near the Hurst. It was taken down by John Fielding, who used the stones to build the whitewashed house at the Hurst, known as Mushroom Hall. Mr. Fielding neglected to obtain a lease of the land, so at his death it became the property of the Lord of The Manor.

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